To address the issue of reactions caused by food to the body, it is appropriate to understand some fundamental concepts that characterize the four blood groups (A, B, AB, 0). Each group differs in the presence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells.
Group A corresponds to N-acetyl-galactosamine, group B corresponds to D-galactosamine, group AB both correspond. Group 0, on the other hand, has no antigen.
Another aspect that differentiates blood groups is the “positive or negative” RH factor; an additional antigen that may be or not found on the surface of red blood cells. Also, the plasma of each blood group contains antibodies that attack foreign antigens, blood cells of different types (transfusions or organ transplants) with which there is no compatibility. Even if the red blood cells do not have the nucleus and do not contain DNA, they have a genetic imprint and are transmitted according to Mendel’s genetic laws, like all the cells of an organism. DNA and the immune system constitute the essence of an organism, determine its uniqueness and all its characteristics; they can establish a tolerance or not towards certain foods even within the same blood group. This is because each individual has unique characteristics that derive from the genetic heritage of the parents and progenitors and the various modifications that the genes have undergone since they were born. These peculiarities establish the tendency or to resist various diseases.
The vertebrate immune system is a very elaborate mechanism that has the function of protecting the body from pathogens.
Defense mechanisms are mainly:
Natural barriers of the human body, essentially skin, and mucous membranes.
1) Physical, chemical and biological defenses:
a) Skin, external skin barrier
b) Mucous membranes, the barrier of all the devices that communicate with the outside world
c) Antibacterial substances present in salary and tear secretions
d) Airway secretions that contain antimicrobial substances, trap germs and allow them to be expelled with mucus.
e) Acid secretion from the stomach
f) Acid secretion of the vaginal canal
2) Cells with phagocytic action, which constitute the innate nonspecific defense, that is, not directed towards a particular agent. It acts on all foreign bodies that enter the body, through neutrophil granulocytes and macrophages, cells responsible for the ingestion and destruction of the invader.
If the macrophage fails to destroy the microbe, it fractionates it and exposes the microbial antigenic components outside the cell. Thus is activated the second immune defense (CELL-MEDIATED), extremely specific, directed towards a precise antigen.
The digestive system, like all systems of the human body, has an important immune component, i.e. aggregates of cells that have the function of protecting the oral cavity (tonsils) and the whole digestive tract, both from the food introduced and from all possible microorganisms and contaminants.
So the food bolus comes into contact in several places with the immune system, which can respond differently, depending on what we introduce.
When the food you eat is adequate, it leads to a state of health. If the food is not tolerated, it causes a series of non-physiological phenomena that can be more or less serious.